CAT Gene Detail
The catalase gene encodes the antioxidant enzyme Catalase (CAT), which is most highly expressed in the liver, kidney and erythrocytes. The enzyme is responsible for the rapid conversion of harmful radical hydrogen peroxide to neutral water and oxygen hence finishes the detoxification reaction started by SOD. It therefore plays a crucial role in redox balance, and decreased CAT activity leads to increased concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, hence increased oxidative stress.
CAT -262 C>T
- Risk allele – T and benefical allele – CC
- Decreased CAT activity is associated with diseases related to oxidative stress, including cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases.
- The CC genotype has been linked to higher CAT activity, and therefore offers some protection against a redox imbalance.
- Ensure a polyphenol-rich diet with a high intake of vegetables.
- Decrease dietary and environmental toxin exposure, from pollution, pesticides, smoked foods and nitrates used as a food preservative. Cessation of smoking should be strongly encouraged.
- Women carrying the TT genotype should be cautious, and well informed, before commencing hormone replacement therapy (HRT), especially if long-term in order to avoid the risk of developing breast cancer.
- Individuals carrying the C allele, especially those with the CC genotype have been associated with a decreased risk of cancer (breast cancer in particular) and better anti-oxidative balance.
- The protection offered by the C allele is further pronounced in individuals who have a high dietary intake of anti-oxidant and polyphenol rich foods. It is interesting to note that this association was not observed with antioxidant supplement intake.
Oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome: which mechanisms are involved?
Avelar et al, 2015.